Guide to cleaning the fruit off palm seeds

Removing the fruit from palm seeds by the easiest, quickest and most cost effective method

The link to buy Juania australis seeds is here: Buy Juania australis seeds

The fruit would eventually rot away in soil, but the problem is that most palm seeds don’t stay viable for any length of time, it is therefore imperative that the fruit, which is often a germination inhibitor, is cleaned off the seeds in a fast and efficient way, so that the seeds can then be germinated as quickly as possible in the nursery.

In this guide we’re focussing on rare and valuable seeds (Juania australis and Pinanga tashiroi), for which care is required to not damage these very expensive seeds. You should note that seeds of many species of palm are incredibly tough and cannot be crushed even with a hammer, an example would be Acrocomia, Parajubaea or Butia ssp., and fruits of these can be easily placed in a bag then trampled under foot until the fruit comes away from the seed, well, the Acrocomia would need a bit more work than that! Nevertheless so many species don’t produce such indestructible seeds, and here we show you how to remove the fruit without damaging these more delicate seeds.

The first step is to try to harvest the seeds when they are fully ripe, picking only the ripe ones and leaving the rest. If you have time at hand, then placing a suspended sheet under the infructescence (bunch of fruit) and waiting for the ripe fruits to fall into the sheet would be the best method. But, in reality we seldom ever have the luxury of time and collection is usually done quickly. In this instance it is far better to cut the whole infructescence and allow the unripe fruits to finish ripenning while still on the infructescence.

Fig. 1. Pinanga tashiroi fruits

Fig. 1. Pinanga tashiroi infructescences, the yellow infructescence with the black fruits is fully ripe, the green infructescence with the red fruits is not yet ripe

The unripe Pinanga tashiroi infructescence (fig 1) was left together with the fully ripe one for 3 days in a warm room, during which time the ethylene gases produced from the fully ripe fruit goes to speed up the ripening process of the unripe fruit. At the same time the unripe fruit draws the remaining water and nutrition out of the green infructescence, had the red fruits been picked off separate then they would have dried out and not gained that remnant nutrition that they needed. All of these fruits went on to fully ripen and the germination test was 100%.

Fig. 2. Juania australis fruits

Fig. 2. Juania australis fruits.

Fig. 3. Scarified Juania australis fruit

Fig. 3. A scarified Juania australis fruit. A sharp knife is used to slice away some of the outer layers of skin and fruit to allow oxygen and water into the fruit.

Fruits of Juania australis (fig 2) have a waxy coating over the skin of the fruit impeding water penetration of the fruit. This also acts as a barrier to oxygen, and therefore slows the oxygenation and decomposition of the fruit by the natural enzymes (pectins) in the fruit. When fruit decomposes it is an effect of oxygenation of the natural enzymes in the fruit to digest it, so when it’s eaten, the animal extracts those nutrients of the fruit, or the fruit decomposes. The skin is the natural barrier to slow this process. We therefore need to damage that skin of the fruit, by bruising or cutting in a process called scarification. Juania australis is the most sought-after cool-tolerant palm species in the world and its seeds are therefore amongst the most expensive seeds in the world. We don’t just knock them about to try to damage the skin, we take great care to not damage the seeds contained. I’ve used a sharp knife to cut away slices of skin and fruit (fig 3) taking care not to cut too deeply and avoiding the seed contained. Once scarified the fruits are left in a warm room for several hours to oxygenate, this starts the decomposition process of the fruit.

The next step requires soaking the fruit in warm (not boiling) water. Some fruit has naturally high levels of pectin enzyme, and therefore decomposes faster. The Pinanga tashiroi seeds were cleaned of fruit within one day after scarification. This was easily done by rubbing the pre-soaked seeds between my hands, then rinsing the cleaned seeds in fresh water, and allowing to become touch-dry in the air. Juania australis fruits are naturally poor in pectin enzyme and therefore require several days soaking and fermenting to remove the fruit. I add additional pectin enzyme to the water, which you can usually buy in a wine-making shop as a white, crystalline powder. One tablespoon full will usually suffice. Normally, when soaking seeds to hydrate them before planting I would say that the water needs to be changed every day. This is because it stagnates (de-oxygenates) and drowns the emerging embryo in the seed. Seeds need oxygen for respiration during germination. Fermenting fruit is different, we don’t change the water, otherwise we would be throwing our pectin enzyme away and slowing the rate of decomposition. The seed, for the most part is protected from the water by the surrounding fruit, and as soon as the fruit falls away we remove, wash, and dry (to touch-dry) the seeds. The cleaned Juania australis seeds (fig 4) should never be allowed to fully dry out.

Fig. 4. Juania australis seeds

Fig. 4. Juania australis seeds, cleaned of fruit, not allowed to dry-out more than simply touch-dry, and they are now ready for germinating.

Current list of germinated palm seeds at Trebrown Nurseries

I’ve made a list of all the diferent species of palm seeds that we, at Trebrown Nurseries, have ever germinated, or attempted to try and germinate. There may be one or two species that I’ve missed off the list.

I’m not going to duplicate the list here. Rather to link directly to it: This is an archive list of all species of Palm tree ever germinated from palm seeds at Trebrown Nurseries.

Understanding the British climate

UK compairable temperatures around the world

First published in 2004

Location Temperature Latitude
Average Min. Record Min.
United Kingdom – Plymouth 4°C -8.8°C 51°N
United Kingdom – London 2°C -10°C 52°N
United Kingdom – Edinburgh 1°C -9°C 56°N
Ireland – Valentia Is. 5°C -7°C 52°N
Argentina – Buenos Aires 6°C -6°C 34°S
Australia – Canberra 1°C -10°C 35°S
Australia – Melbourne 6°C -3°C 37°S
Australia – Alice Springs 4°C -2°C 24°S
Australia – Hobart 4°C -2°C 44°S
Brazil – Porto Alegre 9°C -4°C 30°S
Cyprus – Kyrenia 9°C -4°C 35°N
Chile – Santiago 3°C -4°C 34°S
China – Shanghai 1°C -12°C 31°N
China – Chongqing 5°C -2°C 29°N
Ethiopia – Addis Ababa 5°C 0°C 9°N
France (Corsica) – Ajaccio 4°C -6°C 42°N
France – Bordeaux 2°C -12°C 45°N
France – Cherbourg 4°C -6°C 50°N
France – Paris 1°C -12°C 49°N
Greece – Athens 7°C -6°C 38°N
Hong Kong 13°C 0°C 22°N
Israel – Jerusalem 5°C -3°C 32°N
India – Darjeeling 2°C -3°C 27°N
India – New Delhi 7°C -1°C 28°N
Italy – Rome 5°C -5°C 42°N
Italy – Venice 2°C -9°C 45°N
Japan – Tokyo -2°C -8°C 36°N
Japan – Nagasaki 2°C -6°C 33°N
Jordan – Amman 4°C -6°C 31°N
Monaco – Monte Carlo 8°C -1°C 44°N
Mexico – Mexico City 6°C -3°C 20°N
Nepal – Kathmandu 2°C -2°C 27°N
New Zealand – Wellington 6°C -2°C 41°S
New Zealand – Christchurch 2°C -6°C 44°S
Pakistan – Islamabad 2°C -4°C 34°N
Paraguay – Asuncion 12°C -2°C 25°S
Portugal – Braganca 0°C -12°C 42°N
Portugal – Lisbon 8°C -4°C 39°N
Peru – Cajamarca 8°C -4°C 7°S
Saudi Arabia – Riyadh 8°C -7°C 25°N
South Africa – Cape Town 7°C -2°C 36°S
Spain – Madrid 2°C -10°C 40°N
Spain – Barcelona 7°C -7°C 41°N
Turkey – Istanbul 5°C -9°C 41°N
Uruguay – Montevideo 6°C -4°C 35°S
USA – Los Angeles 8°C -2°C 34°N
USA – Miami 16°C -3°C 25°N
USA – New Orleans 10°C -14°C 30°N
USA – San Diego 8°C -4°C 33°N
USA – San Francisco 8°C -3°C 38°N
USA – Seattle 2°C -16°C 47°N
Zimbabwe – Bulawayo 7°C -2°C 20°S

It may surprise many to learn, considering that it seems to be the national pastime to complain about the weather, that the British Isles has, by far the mildest climate for any region in the world situated between the latitudes of 49° & 61° from the equator.

In this table I have selected various temperature examples from around the world. All of these locations have experienced temperatures of freezing or below within recent history. I have also included the approximate latitude for each location.
To understand this, the smaller the latitude number the closer that location is to the equator, the larger the number the further it is away. The only locations listed with latitudes over 50° are those of the British Isles. Latitudes less then about 24° are situated within the tropics.

Over England the mean annual temperature at low altitudes varies from about 8.5°C to 11°C, with the highest values occurring around or near to the coasts of Cornwall. The mean annual temperature decreases by approximately 0.5°C for each 100m increase in height.

The record for the coldest winter ever still stands at -27.2°C recorded at Braemar, Scotland on 11th February 1895 also repeated on the 10th January 1982. The lowest temperature ever recorded at Plymouth in Devon is -8.8°C on 2nd January 1979. At the opposite extreme, the highest winter temperatures are up to 16°C on rare occasions. This past year (2003) yielded the hottest temperature ever recorded in Britain, 38.1°C at Gravesend on 10th August.

To a very large extent, winter temperature in the British Isles is influenced by the surface temperatures of the surrounding sea, which reaches its lowest values in late February or early March. February is thus normally the coldest month near the coast, but inland both January and February are very similar in minimum temperature. It is the sea surrounding the British Isles that is also responsible for keeping our summer temperatures down, as water changes temperature very slowly.

As a general rule the western side of Britain is cloudier, wetter, and milder in winter, with cooler summers than the eastern side. The eastern side of Britain is drier the year round, with a tendency for summer rain to be heavier than that of winter. The east is much colder in winter and warmer in summer. In most winters there is very little snow, but every fifteen or twenty years it may lie for some weeks during a prolonged cold spell.

There’s nothing much consistent about our weather. Summers can be overcast and rainy all summer long, but then some years we experience long spells of cloudless skies. We even suffer from drought every few summers. When we do have sun during the summer months it is amplified by the extremely long days we have, which are a consequence of the northerly latitude; in the north of Scotland in midsummer the day is eighteen hours long and twilight lasts all night. The other consequence of the northerly latitude is the extremely short winter days and long winter nights, which are further darkened by the usually overcast skies. This is particularly noticeable in the southwest, where the warmer seas keep the temperature up and form sea mists to cloak the land.

Discovering the natural range of Musa itinerans var. kavalanensis in Taiwan

Dried Musa itinerans var. kavalanensis Taichung Museum of Natural History

Dried Musa itinerans var. kavalanensis Taichung Museum of Natural History

While working in the Taichung Museum of Natural History in Taiwan during June 2010, I was shown some dried specimens of a newly discovered yellow-flowered banana from Ilan, north-western Taiwan, and was told that Dr. Hui-Lung Chiu from the Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute was very keen to meet with me to discuss it. A meeting was arranged for the 29th June 2010 after returning from my work on Lanyu Island.

I could learn very little from the dried specimens other than the seeds looked exactly the same as Musa itinerans var. formosana (Syn. Musa formosana).

The meeting with Dr. Chiu was a long and interesting one. He told me that he discovered the yellow-flowered banana in Ilan 3 years earlier whilst looking for M. itinerans var. formosana there. He has since located a second population 2 km further up the road, making a total of two, possibly three locations for the form. He had provisionally decided to name it Musa itinerans var. gamalamesis after the location where he found it. The species was finally published as Musa itinerans var. kavalanensis H.L.Chiu, C.T.Shii & T.Y.A.Yang, Novon 21: 410 (2011). The epithet honours the Kavalan aboriginal people of Ilan county. The two populations Dr. Chiu identified are on the river side of Bei-bu Road, Cross-Island Highway No. 7. at 212 m and 276 m elevation. He thought he may have found a third on the other side of the road, but as they were not flowering he couldn’t be sure. He had not searched the area for more.

I put it to him that as they are directly by the roadside and only in this area that they could be planted by humans, and that I would be willing to go with him on a field trip to thoroughly search the location to possibly find more and establish what the total area of the species is. We arranged the field trip for 11th July 2010 after my return from Japan.

First sight of the yellow-flowered banana by the roadside

First sight of the yellow-flowered banana by the roadside

We set off at dawn from Taichung to reach Ilan before midday. The first population was easily seen beside the road. A large population of what were very large plants, much taller than any M. itinerans var. formosana I had ever seen. We were later to discover that the size of these plants was due to the rich soil beside the riverbed, and less nourished plants do not grow so large.

Other than the size of the plants they looked very similar to M. itinerans var. formosana. Certainly in leaf and stem detail, but also in the clumping habit.

The obvious differences are the male bud being a pale greenish/yellow colour, the same basal colour as the M. itinerans var. formosana male bud but without any of the M. itinerans var. formosana reddish streaks and markings. The fruits also have no reddish/purple colouration leaving them a very clean looking pale bluish/green colour. The pseudostem shows very minimal or zero red blotches or markings unlike M. itinerans var. formosana.

The size of the male bud and overall bunch size is variable even within these larger plants on this fertile riverbed. The male bud size can vary from small, 8 cm long to over 25 cm long.

Close-up of bunch detail

Close-up of bunch detail

Close-up of leaf detail

Close-up of leaf detail

From the location of this first clump by the roadside I could see that there were no other bananas within sight. The second clump was a further 2 km up the road. The clump was of a similar size to the first clump, and again there were no other bananas around that were visible with the naked eye. I used my field glasses to scour the hillsides. On the other side of the riverbed across the valley, about 0.5 km away. I could see more bananas, so we decided to trek across the mainly dry riverbed to get a closer look. These bananas proved to be M. itinerans var. formosana. The fruits had red blotches and streaks and there were visible red blotches on the pseudostem. Now, from the other side of the valley it was very clear that the yellow-flowered bananas were isolated.

Close-up of the male bud, clearly non-imbricate

Close-up of the male bud, clearly non-imbricate

Hui-Lung Chiu with small bunch

Hui-Lung Chiu with small bunch

Collected bunch

Collected bunch

View from the riverbed of the second clump of plants

View from the riverbed of the second clump of plants

Close-up of the male bud

Close-up of the male bud

We then decided it was time we started a thorough search of the hillsides to see if there were more populations. The hillsides were very steep and inaccessible near the two clumps so we chose a spot a little further up the road where we could get access to the hillside. Less than 20 m up the hill from the road we found our first new specimen with a yellow bud. A few metres further on from there we found the next and the next. Within minutes and climbing only about 100 m we were finding several small clumps.

At about 300 m elevation we stumbled upon an isolated cemetery grave in the forest. Planted beside it was a cultivated banana with fruits. Directly behind the grave were many yellow flowered bananas. There was no evidence of any hybridisation taking place.

At 400 m elevation we were finding many huge clumps of the yellow-flowered banana, and we were now loosing count of what we’d seen.

Bunch at 400 m elevation

Bunch at 400 m elevation

Musa itinerans var. formosana at 500 m elevation growing alongside Musa itinerans var. kavalanensis

Musa itinerans var. formosana at 500 m elevation growing alongside Musa itinerans var. kavalanensis

Musa itinerans var. formosana at 500 m elevation clearly showing the purplish coloured fruits and red blotches on the pseudostem

Musa itinerans var. formosana at 500 m elevation clearly showing the purplish coloured fruits and red blotches on the pseudostem

At 500 m elevation we came across a large clump, and looking through it it looked more like M. itinerans var. formosana with many dark red blotched on the pseudostem. We had to search through all the stems until we found flowers and fruit. Sure enough this was Musa itinerans var. formosana and not the yellow-flowered banana, Musa itinerans var. kavalanensis.

A few more metres up the hill and we found a large clump of yellow-flowered banana standing alongside a large clump of M. itinerans var. formosana. At no time did we find any evidence of intermediate hybridisation between the two forms, and conclude that the two forms do not hybridise.

At 800 m elevation Musa itinerans var. kavalanensis  can still be seen in huge clumps.

At 800 m elevation Musa itinerans var. kavalanensis can still be seen in huge clumps.

At 750 m elevation the forest opened up to reveal a much more level landscape, well much less steep, which was being cultivated. We stopped climbing at 800 m, however, bananas were still visible further up the hillside.

 

 

 

 

Further information and complete description can be found on http://www.trebrown.com/plant_info.php?species=Musa+itinerans+var.+kavalanensis Use the interactive distribution map at the bottom of that page. The map may not show the complete distribution of the species, only to the extent that we searched. We do know the bounds to the east and the bounds to the south (the riverbed).

References:
A New Variety of Musa itinerans (Musaceae) in Taiwan
http://www.trebrown.com/plant_info.php?species=Musa+itinerans+var.+kavalanensis

Interested in DIY adventure travel, exploring, and organising your own expedition?

This is a request for like-minded people (ten or so), from any nationality, to come together to organise their own expedition to that remote destination you always wanted to explore, but never got around to.

It may be that you lack the confidence to go it alone, or the logistics and cost has been prohibitive. What I am proposing here is that you come forward to discuss where you want to go and what you wish to do when you get there. If we can get enough like-minded people together, who want to go there then we can pool our resources and organise that expedition much easier and cheaper than if you were to try and do it on your own.

The destinations I am referring to are generally those that may be extremely remote like Madagascar, Borneo, Papua New Guinea, Sumatra, Peru, Chile, Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia etc.. Or less remote, but nevertheless difficult for one to organise on ones own like China, Vietnam, Mexico, or even Africa and Australia. I’m not suggesting you do anything touristy like visit cities and temples, although these things are usually unavoidable.

Like-minded people are those with an interest in the natural world. You may be an academic botanist or zoologist needing to study a particular species, a geologist interested in a mountain range or formation. But you could also be a complete novice with an interest in ornithology, or you just want to see a wild tiger before they go extinct. Whatever your background, if you want to do something really special and adventurous in your lifetime you can, by pooling together with like-minded people to undertake an expedition or field trip everyone gains in the shared knowledge of the participants, the security of travelling together, and the reduced logistical costs.

I envision these field trips and expeditions to be of the duration of a few weeks to a couple of months. Longer trips are not out of the question, but I can tell you from my own experience that expeditions lasting longer than a month become tedious, tiring, and generally much more difficult. Besides, many people can’t spare the time, and people invariably become irritating when you travel for too long with them.

And to give you an idea of what to expect, it is more often the case that most of the time is spent in hotels where we make excursions out into the field. Sometimes we work out of a base camp, other excursions might entail a 5 day trek through a rain forest where we hold up each night in hammocks. Some countries insist that we employ at least one guide to travel with us especially if we have a collecting permit. In most cases it is preferable to have a motor vehicle, mini bus, truck, car or boat, to give us the freedom to get us and our kit close to where we need to go, it then works as our base camp. The itinerary is decided by the species we set out to see, and the minimal amount of effort needed to get in, see that or those species and get out.

About me
I’m not the kind of person who likes to ‘blow my own trumpet’ and talk much about myself, however, I understand that in the context of this you do need to know quite a lot about me.

My name is Phil, I am male, 48 years old, married with two teenage boys, British, based in Cornwall, Southwest UK. And I own Trebrown nurseries and this website. My academic background is in biology and geology, but I specialise in botany and palaeobotany, mainly [Arecaceae] palm trees, [Cycadae] cycads, [Musaceae] bananas, [Pteridophyta] ferns, and conifers especially Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae. My interests extend further than this though and I am fascinated by everything in the natural world, including birds, mammals, invertebrates, reptiles and fish.

I maintain a high level of fitness, but would not go so far as to say I am fanatical about it, I generally eat healthily, but can, on occasion eat junk, and I have been known to consume large levels of alcohol (never out of context). I’m a keen cricketer and play throughout the year. I run and work-out regularly. When I was younger I was keen on hang-gliding, climbing and kayaking, but these days my only adventure sports include scuba diving and hiking, with the occasional bit of tree climbing.

I have received military wilderness survival training and logistical training in planning and moving large volumes of equipment, kit, and personnel, in and out of combat zones. I’ve been trained in first aid (certificate now expired). I am fluent in conversational Mandarin Chinese, and I speak basic Indonesian/Basa Malay. I hold an open-water scuba diving licence.

I also hold a driving licence to drive any motor vehicle with the exception of high capacity seating PCVs (busses), though I’m licensed to drive 16 seaters, HGVs of all classes, automobiles, motorcycles, and have been highly trained to operate vehicles in all terrains – off road in remote locations. Also to maintain and fix vehicles on location.

I have travelled through approximately 67 countries, and driven vehicles through 28 of those countries. Although I have partaken in expeditions all over the world, mainly botanical expeditions, I was based in Taiwan for 10 years and most of my work has been throughout Southeast Asia – China, Taiwan, Tibet, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, India, Pakistan etc.. I also lived in Australia for 2 years, and travelled extensively there and New Zealand. Over the last few years, due to my knowledge of the countries and my language skills, I have assisted, and led many academics into Asian destinations for them to study their specific subject in the field.

Lastly, I have been fortunate over the years to have seen, in the wild, many of the world’s rarest and most fascinating animals, birds, and plants. But you can also see these if you want to.

Now about you
Contact me using the secure link provided. The information you submit will not be published in any way, neither will the information be transmitted to other interested parties without your express permission. I will post your basic destination idea on this page to see if there is public interest.

Start by suggesting a destination, and what it is (if any) that you would like to see or study while you are there. It may be that you don’t mind where you go and are happy to join the party wherever we go.

Provide a little background about yourself, and include information about your fitness. Don’t worry if you have a disability or think you’re not fit enough, contact me anyway and we’ll discuss it. Your fitness will improve tremendously both during preparation and during the expedition. But do remember that you could put other expedition members at risk if you don’t disclose a serious medical problem beforehand.

If you have specialist knowledge about the country, environment, species, language, whatever, Let me know. Likewise, if you have the most experience travelling in the country you will be the expedition leader (help provided). Otherwise, I will assume expedition leadership.

If motor vehicles are to be needed, then I will take on that responsibility, but quite often more than one driver is needed. So if you feel you have the ability to drive and or maintain a vehicle then you should also advise me so.

Even if you can’t do this trip this year, but would like to do it before you die, contact me right now regardless, we can discuss it by email or phone, and it might be more feasible than you originally thought. Please don’t be put off suggesting a destination because it has no palm trees and you think I won’t want to go there, I’m interested to go to any destination regardless of whether I’ve been there before or not.

Contact link, opens a contact form in a new window. Or leave a reply at the bottom of the page.

One last thing. I want to make this ‘Not for profit’. I have to travel all the time anyway, I see this as a means to reduce my costs, and meet interesting people and learn from them. I may have to charge some sort of administration fee if its taking a lot of my time and resources, but the over-all objective here is to reduce the expedition costs for all participants.

Look forward to hearing from you.

Speak to you soon,

Phil Markey

Suggestions:

Two weeks travelling down the eastern side of Taiwan, and a trip over to Lanyu island in the summer 2013.
This is a suggestion from myself. Fairly simple in the planning – travelling in a minibus and staying in hotels every other day or so. Other nights spent outdoors in hammocks, to save hotel costs, and to get into the wilderness. Wildlife includes butterflies, birds including eagles and the Lanyu Scops owl, snakes, and a lot of plants – ferns, bananas, and palms including 3 calamus (ratan) species, Arenga engleri, Pinanga tashiroi, Phoenix loureiroi, and Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa. I know the habitats like the back of my hand, and I speak Chinese.

An addition to this could be Two weeks in the Japanese Ryukyu islands to see: ferns, spectacular environments, Cycas revoluta, and palms including Arenga ryukyuensis, Satakentia liukiuensis, and the most northerly population of Nypa fruticans.
Contact me or leave a message if you’re interested.

The Native Palms of the Ryukyu Islands of Japan

Japan has six native species of palm tree. Four of these are endemic to Japan. There are a further three species, which have been cultivated in Japan for centuries. These are:
Rhapis excelsa (Thunb.) Henry, J. Arnold Arbor. 11: 153 (1930).
Rhapis humilis Blume, Rumphia 2: 54 (1839).
Trachycarpus fortunei var. wagnerianus Becc., Webbia 5: 70 (1921).

Two native species are found only in the Japanese Ogasawara-shoto or Bonin Islands (typical oceanic islands, located 1,000 km south of Tokyo, Japan). These are:
Clinostigma savoryanum (Rehder & E.H.Wilson) H.E.Moore & Fosberg, Gentes Herb. 8: 465 (1956). Endemic.
Livistona boninensis (Becc.) Nakai, J. Jap. Bot. 11: 222 (1935). Endemic.

The remaining four native species are the subject of this article, and these species are found in the Ryukyu archipelago of Japan or Nansei-shoto. These are:
Arenga ryukyuensis A.J.Hend., Taiwania 51: 298 (2006). Endemic.
Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa (Hassk.) Becc., Webbia 5: 16 (1920).
Nypa fruticans Wurmb, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 1: 349 (1779).
Satakentia liukiuensis (Hatus.) H.E.Moore, Principes 13: 5 (1969). Endemic.

The Ryukyu Islands (Figure 1) are a chain of Japanese islands that stretch south-west from Kyushu to Taiwan: the ÅŒsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima (Miyako and Yaeyama) islands, with Yonaguni the southernmost. The largest of the islands is Okinawa. These islands have a subtropical climate with mild winters and hot summers.

Ryukyu Islands

Arenga ryukyuensis
This palm is very similar to Arenga engleri from Taiwan, but differs in the pinnae being strongly ribbed adaxially, and the stems are only to about 2 m tall, whereas, Arenga engleri stems grow to over 4 m. tall. Arenga ryukyuensis seeds are also very globose, short and fat, whereas, Arenga engleri seeds are more elongate, also generally larger. Arenga engleri in Taiwan occurs at 200 – 1050 m. elevation, whereas, Arenga ryukyuensis is a lowland species, and occurs from sea-level up to about 300 m. Indeed, the more common localities to see A. ryukyuensis is on the coral limestone coastal rocks, often in the spray zone.

Arenga ryukyuensis and Cycas revoluta growing together in Okinawa, Japan.

Arenga ryukyuensis and Cycas revoluta growing together in Okinawa, Japan. © Phil Markey

A. ryukyuensis is usually seen growning together with Cycas revoluta, which is also very common, and can also be seen throughout the Ryukyu Islands growing on coastal rocks and cliffs.

Both the cycads and the palms are more frequent at lower levels, becoming more scarce at elevation, nevertheless, both are found at the highest elevations in Okinawa.

Right: Cycas revoluta Okinawa, Japan. Left: Arenga ryukyuensis and Cycas revoluta growing together in dense undergrowth, Okinawa, Japan.

Right: Cycas revoluta Okinawa, Japan. Left: Arenga ryukyuensis and Cycas revoluta growing together in dense undergrowth, Okinawa, Japan. © Phil Markey

Arenga ryukyuensis showing form, and white undersides of the leaves.

Arenga ryukyuensis showing form, and white undersides of the leaves. © Phil Markey

Another difference between Arenga ryukyuensis and Arenga engleri is the infructescence. A. ryukyuensis fruits are somewhat exposed and visible from above, growing out of the top of the plant. Whereas, A. engleri fruits are often hidden in amongst the leaves, and almost never visible from above. Fruit of A. engleri ripens from green, through an orange/yellow to dark purplish red. A. ryukyuensis ripens from green through yellow to orange then dark red.

Left: Arenga ryukyuensis fruits. Right Arenga engleri fruits.

Left: Arenga ryukyuensis fruits. Right Arenga engleri fruits. © Phil Markey

Taiwan is a new island that started being pushed up from the sea-bed around 6.5 Ma, by the north eastward movement of the Philippine plate crashing into the Chinese continental margin at 8 cm. per. year. This would have crashed through the Ryukyu archipelago / Luzon volcanic arc, pushing any pre-existing islands into the new Taiwan landmass. It is therefore logical to assume that Arenga existed first in the Ryukyu, which are very much older islands, and was then taken to Taiwan to evolve into Arenga engleri. It is not possible that there has been a land-bridge between Taiwan and the Ryukyu since that time.

Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa
I have written before about this species, so will not spend too much time discussing it here. Only to say that Livistona chinensis does not exist in its truly wild state anymore anywhere within the Ryukyu or Taiwan. In Japan, so-called virgin L. chinensis forest is now found only on the islets of Aoshima and Tsukishima in the Miyazaki prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. The islet of the gods on Aoshima is the extreme northern limit of the species, and this is also officially recognised as the largest single population of the species in Japan consisting of 4000 individuals. But as I have published before, this is not acurate, the largest virgin population of Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa is to be found on a tiny island called Uotsurijima (Japanese) or Diaoyudao (Chinese). This is the largest island of the Senkaku Islands (钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿) or what we know as the Pinnacle Islands. Uotsurijima or Diaoyudao Island located at 25°44’39”N 123°28’26”E has an area of 4.3 square kilometres (1.7 sq mi) and a highest elevation of 383 metres (1,260 ft). L. chinensis is the dominant tree species on this island and I estimate this population to be over 100,000 individuals.

Left: An interesting picture of Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa growing through an old house on Okinawa, Japan. Right: Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa in Taiwan tends to grow much straighter trunks.

Left: An interesting picture of Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa growing through an old house on Okinawa, Japan. Right: Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa in Taiwan tends to grow much straighter trunks. © Phil Markey

It is more often than not that the Japanese Livistona trunks are seen to be leaning, bent, twisted, and show irregular growth patterns. I’ve questioned this in Japan, and was told that the Ryukyu islands experience many typhoons, which bend the trees over. But, coastal Taiwan experiences the same typhoons, and the Taiwan trees tend to have much straighter, upright trunks. Another, difference is that many of the Ryukyu trees produce much more globose, almost round, seeds than do the Taiwan trees. The Taiwan Livistona produce more globose seeds than do the Chinese trees.

Nypa fruticans in habitat on Iriomote Jima, Ryukyu, Japan.

Nypa fruticans in habitat on Iriomote Jima, Ryukyu, Japan. © Phil Markey

Nypa fruticans
Nypa fruticans exists in Japan in one single, very isolated, and inaccessible population at Funaura on the island of Iriomote Jima.
This population of about 28 or more clumps are located a long way up a tidal tributary stream in a large mangrove swamp that surrounds a stunningly beautiful tidal estuary on the north of the island.

Tidal estuary and tidal tributary stream leading through the mangrove swamp. Iriomote Jima, Ryukyu, Japan.

Beautiful tidal estuary and tidal tributary stream leading through the mangrove swamp. Iriomote Jima, Ryukyu, Japan. © Phil Markey

The Nypa population is carfully monitored.

The Nypa population is carfully monitored. Some of the overhanging mangrove has been cleared away to see if this has any effect on the population growth. © Phil Markey

I must say that these Nypa palms are not good examples. Much better examples are to be seen, in much more accessible locations elsewhere in South-east Asia. The Japanese Nypa are located deep in an important mangrove, declared as a natural monument in 1959, well off the beaten track. This mangrove is an important habitat for wildlife, and is best left to the wildlife that inhabit it.

Nypa fruticans reproduces by vegetative propagation, each clump connected together under the mud.

Nypa fruticans reproduces by vegetative propagation, each clump connected together under the mud. © Phil Markey

The population is the world’s northernmost natural occurrence, and it has been rapidly reduced in size. Its genetic diversity examined by the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA(RAPD) method showed that all 28 individuals examined were genetically identical and had no diversity. They are thus considered clones derived from a single individual by vegetative propagation. Because flowers fail to set fertile seeds, the species is likely to be self-incompatible. The population at Funaura is at an extinction crisis.

Nypa fruticans showing self-incompatible emergent flowers. Iriomote Jima, Ryukyu, Japan.

Nypa fruticans showing self-incompatible emergent flowers. Iriomote Jima, Ryukyu, Japan. © Phil Markey

Satakentia liukiuensis

Satakentia liukiuensis © Phil Markey

Satakentia liukiuensis
Satakentia contains only one species, which is endemic to Japan in the far south of the Ryukyu Islands in the islands of Ishigaki Jima and Iriomote Jima. This genus was named by Harold Moore for Toshihiko Satake, who had noticed it was something special. There is now a museum built to honour Toshihiko Satake within the main population of the palms on Ishigaki Jima.

Trunks can be very tall, brownish/grey, and solitary, topped with a prominent, brown or reddish green crownshaft, which is very distinguishable. With large green pinnate leaves, 3 m. long.
The inflorescences are also distictive, which are branched to two orders, and are borne below the crownshaft.

Trunks have a mass of adventitious roots at the base, and can grow to 20 m.tall. © Phil Markey

Trunks have a mass of adventitious roots at the base, and trunks can grow to 20 m.tall. © Phil Markey

Satakentia liukiuensis is in decline in its natural environment with no known cause, and it was once much more widespread throughout the two islands than it is today. However, plants are being raised in cultivation and are widely planted as a street tree in cities further north, notably Naha on Okinawa.

Satakentia liukiuensis in natural habitat. Ishigaki Jima, Ryukyu, Japan. © Phil Markey

Satakentia liukiuensis in natural habitat. Ishigaki Jima, Ryukyu, Japan. © Phil Markey

Satakentia is grouped in the subtribe Carpoxylinae, which comprises three genus – Carpoxylon, Satakentia, and Neoveitchia. Carpoxylon and Neoveitchia come from Vanuatu and Fiji, it is not clear how the natural distribution could extend to the Japanese Ryukyu for Satakentia.

Satakentia liukiuensis in natural habitat. Ishigaki Jima, Ryukyu, Japan. © Phil Markey

Satakentia liukiuensis in natural habitat. Ishigaki Jima, Ryukyu, Japan. © Phil Markey

Satakentia liukiuensis in natural habitat on Iriomote Jima.

Satakentia liukiuensis in natural habitat on Iriomote Jima. © Phil Markey

There are two main wild populations, the main population on Ishigaki Jima, and a much smaller population on Iriomote Jima with a few individual trees scattered across Iriomote. The Iriomote trees are inaccessible, as they grow in a cemetery, or the isolated trees are remote in the hills.

More info:
Satakentia liukiuensis trebrown.com
Nypa fruticans trebrown.com
Arenga ryukyuensis trebrown.com
Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa trebrown.com

Musa itinerans var. formosana and Musa balbisiana

Musa itinerans var. formosana 1800 m elevation Shitou, Central Taiwan

Musa itinerans var. formosana 1800 m elevation
Shitou, Central Taiwan

My latest field trip to Taiwan was funded by the International Palms Society, the New York Botanical Garden, and the Taichung Science Museum to study the distribution of Arenga palms throughout Taiwan and Ryukyu Japan. Luckily the Arenga palms grow in very much the same locations as Musa itinerans var. formosana (Syn. Musa formosana), and so during this extensive trip during June and July I have been able to asses the population of the bananas in Taiwan.

I have, for many years been familiar with Musa itinerans var. formosana growing at high elevation in central and southern Taiwan. I am also familiar with Musa balbisiana growing around Kenting in the far south of Taiwan and also near Chiayi in west central Taiwan. I have seen Musa itinerans var. formosana in the north and east of Taiwan before, but never paid much attention to it. I was also aware that there was once a thriving banana cloth textile industry in the east of Taiwan mainly near Hualien and Ilan, but also all the way down the east coast of Taiwan.

Therefore, at the start of this trip I was expecting to see Musa balbisiana growing all along the east coast of Taiwan as a remnant of the banana cloth industry, as this is the banana used for cloth making in Japan. But there are no Musa balbisiana in the east of Taiwan, and Musa balbisiana was not used for banana cloth manufacture in the east of Taiwan. Musa balbisiana was probably used for textile making in the south of Taiwan and around Chiayi.

At high elevation the red markings on the pseudostem of Musa itinerans var. formosana are less obvious, the fact that highland plants usually hold a skirt of dead leaves may be obscuring it. Very dark red, almost black markings on the pseudostem are quite common sight in the highlands. The male bud is usually dark red. Fruits often seem to have less red colouration, this might be due to residue falling off of the conifer trees onto the more mature fruit turning them black. Nevertheless, high elevation plants do have red blotching on the pseudostem, and they do have reddish/purple coloured fruits, it is just much less obvious.

Musa itinerans var. formosana 1800 m elevation Shitou, Central Taiwan

Musa itinerans var. formosana 1800 m elevation Shitou, Central Taiwan

Musa itinerans var. formosana 200 m elevation Ilan, East Taiwan

Musa itinerans var. formosana 200 m elevation Ilan, East Taiwan

Musa itinerans var. formosana 700 m elevation Shitou, Central Taiwan

Musa itinerans var. formosana 700 m elevation Shitou, Central Taiwan

Musa itinerans var. formosana 1700 m elevation Shitou, Central Taiwan

Musa itinerans var. formosana 1700 m elevation Shitou, Central Taiwan

Musa itinerans var. formosana on the east of the mountains, growing at lower (200 – 800 m) elevation usually shows very obvious bright red blotches on the pseudostem. Fruits are much more visible, usually with very bright reddish colour. There tends to be much less red streaking on the male bud than is seen in the highlands.

The most noticeable point is the altitude at which the plants grow. On the west of the central mountains Musa itinerans var. formosana cannot be found growing less than 600 m elevation. However, to the east of the central mountains they start at 200 m elevation. This is probably a result of the eastern side of the mountains being cooler than the west, and receiving more rainfall than the west due to the coastal location. The Arenga palm also grows at lower elevation to the east and north of the mountains.

Musa itinerans var. formosana fruits, Ilan, East Taiwan

Musa itinerans var. formosana fruits, Ilan, East Taiwan

Musa itinerans var. formosana a rare totally yellow bud we found at Shitou, Central Taiwan

Musa itinerans var. formosana a rare totally yellow bud
we found at Shitou, Central Taiwan

So if Musa balbisiana was not the banana used in Hualien and Ilan for the textile industry what banana did they use? There are still a few old women in Hualien who can make banana cloth, it seems the banana they are using is the triploid cultivated banana from cultivation. I wonder if this is because it has been forgotten what banana they used in the past, or if they have moved over to using the cultivated banana because it is better than Musa itinerans var. formosana.

It seems obvious to me that Musa itinerans var. formosana was most probably the original banana used for the Taiwan banana cloth industry, and is the reason it was exported to Lanyu Island. It is probably not the best banana to use, and the fibres are quite weak by comparison to Musa balbisiana, but Musa balbisiana is not found on the east of Taiwan.

Musa itinerans var. formosana cannot be found below 600 m elevation in the far south of Taiwan around Kenting so Musa balbisiana, which does not grow above 300 m elevation is a more suitable banana to grow there.

Musa balbisiana 300 m elevation Kenting, South Taiwan

Musa balbisiana 300 m elevation
Kenting, South Taiwan

Musa balbisiana 300 m elevation Chiayi, central Taiwan

Musa balbisiana 300 m elevation
Chiayi, central Taiwan

Musa balbisiana Kenting showing imbricate male bud

Musa balbisiana Kenting
showing imbricate male bud

Musa balbisiana Kenting After storm damage the male bud becomes much more difficult to identify

Musa balbisiana Kenting
After storm damage the male bud
becomes much more difficult to identify

While I was in Japan I visited the Ryukyu banana cloth region of northern Okinawa. While I was there I questioned the ladies working there about the suitability of different species of banana for use in the banana cloth industry. I was told that Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis was by far the best banana to use, as it produced the finest thread to make the best quality garments. They said that fabric made from the cultivated triploid banana was very coarse, and makes a heavy sack cloth. Musa textilis was good but not as good as Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis. But none of the ladies knew about Musa itinerans var. formosana from Taiwan.

Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis Okinawa Japan

Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis
Okinawa Japan

Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis Okinawa Japan

Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis
Okinawa Japan

Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis Okinawa Japan

Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis
Okinawa Japan

Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis Okinawa Japan

Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis
Okinawa Japan

More Info:
Musa itinerans var. formosana
Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis
Musa balbisiana

The Natural Distribution of Livistona chinensis Past and Present

Including Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa and Livistona chinensis var. boninensis

There are three natural forms of Livistona chinensis formally known as Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) R.Br. ex Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 240 (1838). from the Chinese mainland, Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa (Hassk.) Becc., Webbia 5: 16 (1920). from the Ryukyu archipelago of Japan & Taiwan, and Livistona chinensis var. boninensis Becc., Webbia 5: 12 (1921). from the Bonin Islands of Japan. However, these names have recently been taxonomically revised where Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa has been reduced to the species level as Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) R.Br. ex Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 240 (1838). and Livistona chinensis var. boninensis is now Livistona boninensis (Becc.) Nakai, J. Jap. Bot. 11: 222 (1935).

Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa

Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa

Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa is perhaps justifiably not deserved of subspecies status, as the morphological differences are slight when compared with the Chinese mainland form. The main noticeable difference is to be seen in the size and shape of the seeds. The mainland China form, which is the commonest form in cultivation around the world produces a typically elongate, smaller seed (15 – 9 mm) than the Japan/Taiwan form which produces a larger, more globose seed (18 – 12 mm).

Livistona boninensis has had a much longer natural isolation, and differs in the height of the trunk being 18 m or more tall compared to 12 m for L. chinensis. Livistona boninensis‘ seeds are also larger but seldom ever as globose as L. chinensis var. subglobosa.

As I mentioned the mainland China form is by far the commonest form in cultivation with the main sources of seed being India, Pakistan, the USA and Europe. Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa from Taiwan and Japan is quite uncommon in cultivation outside of Taiwan and Japan, but is by far the most widespread and commonest form in the wild today. The former name of L. chinensis var. subglobosa was most useful as the indicator of provenance of the two main forms, and therefore identifying it as the Japan/Taiwan form and the most cold-hardy of the two (Zone 8b) (-6.7 to – 9.4). L. boninensis is equally as hardy.

Natural distribution of Livistona chinensis today

Livistona boninensis a palm native to Ogasawara-shoto or Bonin Islands (typical oceanic islands, located 1,000 km south of Tokyo, Japan), is endemic to several of the islands and introduced to the nearby Iwo (or Volcano) Islands. The Bonin Islands is a scattered archipelago of 20 or more rugged volcanic islands with many additional islets and rocks. The archipelago extends from the island of Mukojima in the north to the Iwo Islands in the south. The Bonins can be divided into three main clusters of islands: the Mukojima, Chichijima, and Hahajima-rettos groups. The native range of L. boninensis today is the Hahajima-retto group.
bonin-islands

The climate of the islands is subtropical, with a marked seasonal temperature variation, ranging from a sea level mean of 18°C in February to 25°C in July and August. A regular dry season occurs from January through March; sometimes there is also a secondary dry season in July and August.

The basal rocks of the Bonins were formed during the Tertiary 65 to 1.8 million years ago by submarine volcanic activity. Boninite, an andesitic volcanic rock rich in magnesium oxide, chromium, and silicon dioxide, is widespread, and is overlain in some areas by volcanic breccia. Most of the islands drop sharply to the ocean, with sea cliffs ranging from 50 to 100 meters in height.

The primary subtropical broad-leaved evergreen forest that remains on the islands can be classified into 3 major types. The palms occupy a dry forest on rocky slopes where the palm is a second dominant and is associated with Pandanus boninensis and Ochrosia nakaiana.

Livistona chinensis on the mainland of China no-longer has any truly natural wild stands of trees in any number. Small populations can still be found around Guangdong and on the island of Hainan. Although naturalised populations of the palm can be found in other areas of China and other South-East Asian countries, as well as some South Asian countries and Hawaii. The palm is commonly planted as a street ornamental throughout warm-temperate regions of the world.

Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa is naturally distributed from Taiwan through the islands of Okinawa and as far north as Kyushu, Japan, where it grows along shores washed by the warm Kuroshio current. However, due to it’s lowland habitat no wild populations exist in Taiwan today. In Japan, so called virgin L. chinensis forest is now found only on the islets of Aoshima and Tsukishima in the Miyazaki prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. The islet of the gods on Aoshima is the extreme northern limit of the species, and this is also officially recognised as the largest single population of the species in Japan consisting of 4000 individuals.

However, I report here, for the first time that by far the largest virgin population of Livistona chinensis var. subglobosa is to be found on a tiny island called Uotsurijima (Japanese) or Diaoyudao (Chinese). This is the largest island of the Senkaku Islands (钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿) or what we know as the Pinnacle Islands. Uotsurijima or Diaoyudao Island located at 25°44’39”N 123°28’26”E has an area of 4.3 square kilometres (1.7 sq mi) and a highest elevation of 383 metres (1,260 ft). L. chinensis is the dominant tree species on this island and I estimate this population to be over 100,000 individuals.

The Pinnacle Islands are a group of disputed, uninhabited islands currently controlled by Japan, but also claimed by both the Republic of China on Taiwan and the People’s Republic of China as part of Taiwan Province. The island group is made up of five small non-volcanic islands which sit on the edge of the continental shelf of mainland China, and are geologically separated from the Ryukyu Islands by the Okinawa Trough. Japan argues that these islets are part of the Ryukyu Islands. They are 170 kilometers (106 mi) north of Ishigaki Island, Japan; 186 km (116 mi) northeast of Keelung, Taiwan; and 410 km (255 mi) west of Okinawa Island.

The dispute appears to date from the 1968 announcement by two Japanese scientists that there may be large reservoirs of oil under the continental shelf below the islands. From the end of World War II until 1972, the United States occupied Okinawa, and controlled the islands, whose ownership was undisputed until 1970, when both China and Taiwan began to claim that the disputed islands were given to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895 and should therefore be returned to Taiwan (after the end of World War II in 1945, all “unequal treaties” forced on China were declared void, including the Treaty of Shimonoseki, concluded in 1895). In 1971, the US expressed its intention to hand over the occupied territories, including the disputed islands, to Japan. Both the China and Taiwan governments protested and reiterated their claim to sovereignty over the islands. Taiwan made the official announcement on 11 June 1971, followed by China on 30 December. However, the United States handed over the disputed islands to Japan in 1972, even though they have not taken a definitive position on the sovereignty of the territory, considering the islands an “administrative territory” of Japan.

After losing the First Sino-Japanese War, Qing China signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki on 17 April 1895. This Unequal Treaty ceded Taiwan, Okinawa and its surrounding islands to Japan. The Chinese governments see the disputed islands as having been included in the islands ceded to Japan by the treaty, even though the Treaty did not explicitly enumerate all the islands ceded under it. On this basis, they argue for Chinese sovereignty over the islands for two reasons. First, that all the Unequal Treaties are null and void and thus the islands are still part of Taiwan Province of China. Secondly, that since the disputed islands were ceded along with Taiwan in 1895, therefore when Japan returned to China all territories it had obtained from China since the First Sino-Japanese War at the end of World War II, the disputed islands were returned along with Taiwan to China.

The first frustrating issue regarding this dispute is that no scientist can get anywhere near the island to evaluate the palm population or any of the other flora & forna. The Senkaku mole (Nesoscaptor uchidai) is an endemic mammal to the island and could, for all we know be extinct now. The second frustrating issue is regarding the feral goat population on the island, which is totally out of control. A sum total of 3 domestic goats were deliberately introduced to the island in 1978. There is now an estimated 300+ animals devastating the juvenile palm population, and due to the dispute over the island no government is prepared to send in hunters to eradicate the goats.

Distribution map for Livistona chinensis

Distribution map for Livistona chinensis

Natural distribution of Livistona chinensis in the past

The historical distribution of Livistona chinensis was certainly much more widespread than it is today. It is known to have occurred on Tsushima island (at latitude 34°N) located to the south of the Korean Peninsula. Evidence also points to the species being much more numerous on all the islands it occurs on today.

When haplotypes from the amplified DNA band patterns of the Japanese distribution of the species were compared by Japanese scientists they concluded the true origin of the species points to northern Taiwan, Iriomotejima, Ishigakijima and Okinawa in Japan. These same scientists also supported the hypothesis that natural distribution throughout its range in the islands occurred through oceanic drift of seeds on the Kuroshio current. I totally disregard this hypothesis based on the facts that viable seeds do not float even on salt-water, and that salt-water quickly kills the developing embryo within the seed.

Therefore, we need to look for lower sea-levels during the ice ages to see how distribution of this palm occurred. The current interglacial that we are currently enjoying started about 12,000 – 10,000 years ago when the planet warmed and the ice-caps started to melt making the sea-level rise. That last glaciation lasted roughly 100,000 years, where the Glacial Maximum occurred about 20,000 – 18,000 years ago, and it was at this time that the sea level was at its lowest, roughly 120-150 m lower than it is today.

China - Japan sea-levels during last Glacial Maximum

China - Japan sea-levels during last Glacial Maximum

As you can see from the map the lower sea-level explains how Livistona chinensis extended from Taiwan to Japan and Korea in the north, and to Hainan China in the south. However, this does not explain how the palm spread throughout the islands of the Ryukyu Archipelago of Japan. Nor does it explain how Livistona boninensis reached the Bonin Islands of Japan. For the palm to be able to reach, and spread through the Ryukyu from Taiwan the sea-level would have needed to be at least 400 m lower than today. To reach the Bonin Islands would have required a sea-level at least 1500 m lower than today. If we go back even further in time to evaluate even earlier Ice Ages then the Ice Age preceding the last occurred about 145 million years ago between the Jurassic and Cretaceous. But this Ice Age was not as cold, and did not produce very low sea-levels. Besides, we have not been able to find any palm relatives in the fossil record which date older than about 115 – 120 million years.

We have already mentioned that the Bonin Islands were formed during the Tertiary 65 to 1.8 million years ago by submarine volcanic activity. This same is true for the entire Philippine Arc of volcanic islands, which includes the Batan Islands of the Philippines and the Ryukyu Archipelago. The island of Taiwan is even younger and was formed less than 6.5 million years ago by the Luzon Volcanic Arc crashing into the Chinese continental margin and in doing so forced the land mass of Taiwan up from the sea bed.

The Pacific Rim, of which the Ryukyu is part was much hotter and far more active in the past, and during the last 1.8 million years has been rapidly cooling. With this the Ryukyu Archipelago and the Bonin Islands of Ogasawara-shoto have been sinking in a process called Ridge Subduction. Newly created, hot rocks are buoyant on the mantle, and therefore rise, displacing the seawater above it. Thus making shallow seas. As the rocks cool over time they sink further into the mantle. Making deep water above them. The full extent of the elevation they once were and the amount they have sunk is too difficult to quantify. But 1000 – 2000 m is not impossible, and this could be the answer we are looking for. Failing this the only explanation could be that seeds have been carried there by humans or birds, or that the seeds got there by floating on oceanic debris.

Conclusion: Livistona chinensis possibly occurred in the northern Taiwan area around 1.8 to 20 mya., but could have arrived there as late as 20,000 – 90,000 years ago. The species reached its maximum around 20,000 years ago when the sea-levels were 120 m lower than they are today. During this time its distribution stretched from southern China to Korea and as far north-east as Tokyo Japan. We assume that the islands of Ogasawara-shoto and Ryukyu Archipelago were much higher than they are today, and that 20,000 years ago they were still high enough to form a land bridge. Livistona boninensis became isolated at a very early stage, and Livistona chinensis has been slowly declining in numbers in recent times.

The world’s rarest wild palm tree Corypha taliera is dying

The last wild Corypha taliera has started to flower and will now die

Corypha taliera is a solitary, massive, moderately slow growing, monoecious palm with a hapaxanthic or monocarpic mode of growth where the plant dies after setting seed. The palm grows for say 80 years without producing a flower, then upon coming of age the flower grows out of the top of the tree, the leaves die and fall off leaving a massive terminal panicle flower atop the massive trunk. C. taliera holds two world records which it shares with Corypha umbraculifera, the largest flower structure among flowering plants and the largest palmate leaf which is 6 m. (20 ft.) wide.

Corypha taliera

Corypha taliera

Although the palm in the scrub jungle on the Dhaka University campus is the last known Corypha taliera growing in the wild, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) has already classified the plant on its Red List, as being “extinct in the wild”. This is because molecular work – which is required to confirm the identification – still hasn’t been taken out on the plant. Until molecular work is carried out, they will only say that this plant has been “tentatively identified”. Also, IUCN say that it’s unclear about whether or not the specimen originated from cultivated material. They also mention that the plant is effectively in a “cultivated state”, and therefore probably wouldn’t count towards the “wild” classification. Although not in the wild, Corypha taliera specimens are currently growing in the Indian Botanic Garden and the Fairchild Tropical Garden in Florida, USA. Because these aren’t growing in the natural environment, they don’t count for “wild” plants hence the IUCN classification “Extinct in the Wild”.

No other specimen of Corypha taliera palm has been found in the wild in almost 30 years. In 1979, a C. taliera, located in the Birbhum district of West Bengal in a village near Shantiniketan, had begun flowering. The locals fearing that it was a “ghost palmyra palm” Borassus flabellifer, due to its horn-like flowers, chopped it down before the flower could set seed.

But all is not lost. This news that it is dying is good news

This is not the last Corypha taliera palm tree in existence, it is merely the last in a wild state. There are several trees still remaining at the Adward Park, Bogra, Bangladesh, and also Howrah botanic garden in India. A cultivated specimen in Howrah botanic garden ultimately flowered and its seeds were saved and raised to seedlings with some sent to the Fairchild Tropical Garden, Florida, USA. These plants are now quite large and will flower in about 80 years.

Our tree at the Dhaka University campus will ultimately produce millions of golf-ball sized seeds, which will rain down for months. These seeds will be raised into new trees. We now have good hopes of increasing the population and re-planting back into the wild. Talks are undergoing, but it currently looks like none of these seeds will be distributed abroad, and all will be planted in its native land.

Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis

A not so newly naturalized wild banana in Taiwan

Introduction

A paper from the Journal of Taiwan Agricultural Research, written by Hui Lung et al., titled “Musa balbisiana L. A. Colla, a newly naturalized wild banana in Taiwan“. Volume: 56 Issue: 3 Pages: 215-223 Published: 2007, has only now been brought to my attention. This paper has answered a question that I’ve been puzzling over for more than 10 years. However, it didn’t quite answer all aspects of why this banana species, in the far south of Taiwan puzzled me, and this led me to investigate further. The results of my findings I publish here.

Musa insularimontana Copyright © Phil Markey

Musa insularimontana
Copyright © Phil Markey

I’ve been studying the Taiwan native bananas, off and on for 17 years now. My main subject has been the palms of Taiwan, and I’ve studied the two native species of banana from this region out of pure curiosity during this time. One species of banana from Taiwan Musa insularimontana is one of the rarest of all bananas. Endemic to a tiny volcanic island 76 Km off the south-eastern coast of the Taiwan mainland called Lanyu Island. This island is geographically isolated from the Taiwan mainland by a deep oceanic trench, and is in-fact part of the Batan archipelago of the Philippines. The flora is that of the Philippines and not of the Taiwan mainland. The other banana, is also endemic to Taiwan. This is Musa formosana, and is a high elevation species found in mountainous regions throughout the Taiwan mainland at altitudes of 50 m to 1,800 m in the north and about 1,000 m to 1,800 m in the south. In central Taiwan it starts at around 300 m elevation. This species dislikes the hotter, drier environment in the south of Taiwan, and is therefore restricted at altitude.

Musa formosana Copyright © Phil Markey

Musa formosana
Copyright © Phil Markey

However, there is a third banana species in the far south of Taiwan found from sea-level to approximately 800 m elevation. A species considerably different to M. formosana, but due to the fact that there are no other native species in Taiwan other than the two I have just mentioned, I have, over the last 10 years endeavoured to call this the ‘southern form of M. formosana’. This species has finally been identified by this paper by Hui Lung et al., as Musa balbisiana, and it’s characteristics now appear blatantly obvious to me. What is not conveyed by this paper is the duration this species has been on the island. The paper describes it as being a recent naturalisation. It is this assumption that I have difficulty with, because this is a very common and widespread species in the south and also occurs in wilderness areas, often at huge distances away from human habitation. It has been my assumption over all these years that this could only be a wild species in the south of Taiwan. The species can also be found in other, more northerly locations (albeit much less frequently) namely Chiayi to the west of the mountains and Hualien to the east of them, and even in the far north near Taipei and Taoyuen. In my mind this species had to have been naturalised in Taiwan for at least 100 years. But how could this species have got here so long ago? What subspecies of Musa balbisiana is it? And from where did it come from, and why?

Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis Copyright © Phil Markey

Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis
Copyright © Phil Markey

I started my investigation by looking at the commercial uses of Musa balbisiana. There is a naturally, sterile, triploid hybrid of Musa balbisiana in China and other places called Musa paradisiaca, derived from Musa acuminata Colla and M. balbisiana Colla. But our banana in Taiwan produces seeds prolifically and is not this plant. Musa balbisiana is thought to have originated in India, but it is also regarded as native of the Philippines. Could our banana have come from the Philippines? But we’ve already established that it couldn’t have crossed the deep oceanic trench between the two countries by itself. Other than an ornamental species, Musa balbisiana’s only other use is fibre production for yarn-making. Musa textilis or abaca is an important fibre banana from the Philippines and the source of Manila hemp, still used today for such diverse uses as marine cordage and tea bags. Musa balbisiana is also occasionally used in the Philippines for this purpose. But the place renowned for it’s use of Musa balbisiana for fibre production is the Ryukyu Islands of Japan, and which are the closest foreign islands to Taiwan. Things are now starting to make sense.

The Japanese occupied Taiwan in the period between 1895 and 1945 during which Taiwan was a Japanese colony. The Japanese followed a simple, fundamental developmental strategy: “industrialise Japan, agriculturalise Taiwan.” Under this strategy, Taiwan only developed itself agriculturally in order to produce food and other agricultural products for Japan.

“The Japanese rulers encouraged the cultivation of bananas, which they found to be sweet and delicious. The plantation area increased from 540 hectares in 1909 to 21,850 hectares in 1936. Total production of bananas reached 2,185,890 metric hundredweight in 1937, an increase from 63,216 metric hundredweight in 1909. Thus, Taiwan became known as the Banana Kingdom’. Banana exports to Japan began in 1903. (Chung 1997).”

Japanese production of bananas in Taiwan (Taiwan sotokufu 1938, opposite p. 27)

I can find no information regarding banana fibre production in Taiwan. But I can neither find any information regarding banana fibre production in Japan. The possible reason for this is that the banana fibre producing area is in-fact the Ryukyu Islands and not Japan proper. The Ryukyu Islands were not part of Japan until 1895 when they were bundled with Taiwan and ceded to Japan. Therefore, the Japanese probably had no reason to move production from this well established region to Taiwan. From this we therefore assume that before 1895 Taiwan and Ryukyu had close ties and quite possibly fibre production was already well established in Taiwan well before this time.

The name given to the fibre banana of Ryukyu is Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis (Matsum.) Häkkinen, Adansonia, III, 30: 91 (2008), formally Musa liukiuensis. The reason this name has only just recently been applied to this species is an interesting story in itself, and I shall explain this here now, as this has relevance to our story.

This story begins in 1887 – 1889 when Charles Maries, a foreman at the Exeter nursery of James Veitch & Sons, collected a banana plant from either Hokkaido or Honshu during a three-year collecting trip to Japan. James Veitch & Sons was the 1863 London offshoot of the great Veitch nursery company founded in Devon in 1808 (Robert Veitch & Sons), and who are responsible for introducing so many well know species into cultivation. The banana plant he introduced was not named by the company for some unknown reason. But this plant is now well known to all of us as Musa basjoo. The species has remained in cultivation to this day. Because of the lack of seed and the fact that it has been vegetatively propagated for so long there has been little variation in the M. basjoo offered for sale in Europe. Most plants represent the Veitch clone, more or less unaltered since its introduction. Cheesman’s description of M. basjoo was based on plant material that came, not from Japan, but from Devon (Cheesman 1948c). Robert Veitch & Sons are the probable source of the material from Devon sent to Cheesman in Trinidad in the late 1930’s or early 1940’s. Musa basjoo was first named by von Siebold in his Synopsis Plantarum Oeconomicarum universi regni Japonici of 1830. Siebold’s text reads:

“It was introduced from the islands of Ryukyu, and can scarcely withstand the bitterness of the winter. From its leaves is made linen, especially on the islands of Ryukyu and certain islands in the province of Satzuma. It is without doubt linen, of a kind which is called Japanese by the inhabitants of the Philippines”

Before its incorporation into Japan as the Ryukyu Islands, the Kingdom of Ryukyu, centred on the island of Okinawa, engaged in a flourishing entrepot trade with China, Korea, Japan and south-east Asia and one of the items of trade was banana cloth. The Kyushu-based von Siebold wrote of the plant being introduced from the Ryukyu to Japan. The cloth, basho-fu (banana-cloth), was produced from the banana plant, basho, or more specifically the thread banana, ito-basho. Today, basho-fu is a luxury cloth made only in the village of Kijoka, on Okinawa. Von Siebold clearly thought his plant (Musa basjoo) was the ito-basho used as a source of fibre in the Ryukyu Islands and named it accordingly. There is no evidence that von Siebold travelled to the Ryukyu Islands, which were not then even part of Japan. So von Siebold almost certainly did not see the ito-basho in its supposed native place. It is likely that von Siebold did see the banana he named Musa basjoo growing as an ornamental in gardens on Kyushu and Honshu and noted that it was called basho by the locals. From his interest in ethnography von Siebold knew that basho was cultivated in the Ryukyu Islands as a source of fibre. It is most likely that he simply assumed that the two basho were one and the same plant.

The specific epithet basjoo is derived directly from the Japanese basho. Basho, literally ‘Banana’ is derived from the Chinese ‘ba jiao’. Although always reported as being a native of Japan and Korea, Musa basjoo was actually originally imported into these places from China, and there are no native banana species in Japan whatsoever.

Ever since its introduction in the West Musa basjoo has been known as the Japanese or Japanese Fibre Banana. It has been regarded as native to the Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan, and noted as producing fibre. None of these facts are true and the Japanese have known this for years.

The true identity of the Japanese Fibre Banana (Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis) became known only during the aftermath of Japan’s defeat in WWII when the Ryukyu Islands came under the control of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (USCAR). USCAR brought Egbert H. Walker, a staff member of the Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution to Okinawa. He was in charge of the Serviceman’s Collecting Program (SCP) in which US forces members were encouraged to collect and submit botanical and other specimens. In his Flora of Okinawa, Walker made no mention of M. basjoo, but did include the ito-basho, then Known as Musa liukiuensis. Walker commented:

“Seeds from plants of Musa liukiuensis in Oku village in northern Okinawa were grown in Kingston, Jamaica by the Banana Breeding Scheme of the Banana Board. The seed, seedlings and flowers were reported in 1973 to be identical with those of Musa balbisiana Colla.”

The identity of the ito-basho, the true Japanese Fibre Banana, is thus firmly established as Musa balbisiana L. A. Colla. And I conclude Musa balbisiana var. liukiuensis (Matsum.) Häkkinen, Adansonia, III, 30: 91 (2008) from the Ryukyu Islands is almost certainly the true identity of Musa balbisiana distributed in Taiwan.

References.

Taiwan Agricultural Research – Musa balbisiana L. A. Colla, a newly naturalized wild banana in Taiwan. Hui Lung et al.

The truth about Musa basjoo – D R Constantine